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论文写作技巧.

哪些句型适用于定义关键专有名词?

研究论文中用于定义专有名词的句型

在撰写学术论文时,作者常会借由定义关键词或词组,帮助读者理解文章陈述的论点。关键词对于文章的理解很重要,对于关键词含义的错误理解,可能导致对论点或文章部分内容的错误理解。实际上,对同一关键词的不同解释常常是造成研究者之间意见相左的主要原因。因此,在学术写作中,作者务必留意可能存在的重要专有名词的不同诠释方式。
介绍定义的句型

  1. It is necessary here to clarify exactly what is meant by …
  2. There is a degree of uncertainty around the terminology in …
  3. This shows a need to be explicit about exactly what is meant by the word X.
  4. X is a term frequently used in the literature, but to date there is no consensus about …

简易的三段式定义句型


一般意义或应用上的意义

  1. The term X refers to …
  2. The term X encompasses A), B), and C).
  3. X can be defined as … It encompasses …
  4. X can be loosely described as a correlation.
  5. The term X has come to be used to refer to …
  6. The term X is generally understood to mean …
  7. The term X has been applied to situations where students …
  8. In the literature, the term tends to be used to refer to …
  9. The broad use of the term X is sometimes equated with …
  10. Whereas X refers to the operations of …, Y refers to the …
  11. The term disease refers to a biological event characterized by …
  12. The term X is a relatively new name for a Y, commonly referred to…
  13. In broad biological terms, X can be defined as any stimulus that is …
  14. Defined as XYZ, obesity is now considered a worldwide epidemic and is associated with …

 

指出专有名词难以定义的原因

  1. A generally accepted definition of X is lacking.
  2. Unfortunately, X remains a poorly defined term.
  3. The term X embodies a multitude of concepts which …
  4. A further definition is given by Smith (1982) who describes …
  5. In the field of language teaching, various definitions of X are found.
  6. Smith (2001) identified four abilities that might be subsumed under the term X: a) …
  7. Although differences of opinion still exist, there appears to be some agreement that X refers to …
  8. X is a commonly-used notion in language learning and yet it is a concept difficult to define precisely.

 

指定专有名词在文章或论文中的使用方式

  1. The term X will be used solely when referring to …
  2. In the present report, X was therefore defined in terms of …
  3. In this essay, the term X will be used in its broadest sense to refer to all …
  4. In this paper, the term that will be used to describe this phenomenon is X.
  5. In this dissertation, the terms X and Y are used interchangeably to mean …
  6. Throughout this thesis, the term education is used to refer to informal systems as well as …
  7. While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this paper will use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as …

 

引用他人定义:著名作者

  1. For Smith (2001), fluency means/refers to …
  2. Smith (2001) uses the term ‘fluency’ to refer to …
  3. Smith (1954) was apparently the first to use the term …
  4. The term ‘fluency’ is used by Smith (2001) to refer to …
  5. Macro-stabilization policy is defined by Smith (2003: 119) as ‘… …’
  6. This definition is close to those of Smith (2012) and Jones (2013) who define X as …
  7. In 1987, sports psychologist John Smith popularized the term ‘X’ to describe …
  8. According to a definition provided by Smith (2001:23), fluency is ‘the maximally …
  9. Aristotle defines the imagination as ‘the movement which results upon an actual sensation.’
  10. One of the first people to define nursing was Florence Nightingale (1860), who wrote: ‘… …’
  11. Chomsky writes that a grammar is a ‘device of some sort for producing the ….’ (1957, p.11).
  12. Smith, has shown that, as late as 1920, Jones was using the term ‘X’ to refer to particular …
  13. The term ‘matter’ is used by Aristotle in four overlapping senses. First, it is the underlying … Secondly, it is the potential which …
  14. Smith et al. (2002) have provided a new definition of health: ‘health is a state of being with physical, cultural, psychological …’

 

引用他人定义:一般作者

  1. Validity is the degree to which an assessment process or device measures what it is intended to measure (Smith et al., 1986).

评述定义

希望以上句型对您在论文中定义关键专有名词有所帮助。

 

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如何在论文中使用 “归类”和“列表”句型?

用于“归类”及“列表”的句型

研究论文中常会用到具归类功能以及列表功能的句型。归类句型常用在论文中较前面的章节。列表句型则用于将众多的信息以某种方式进行罗列或归类,以便于之后的系统性处理或呈现。在归类时,我们依照事物的共同性来分类与命名。这么一来,读者可一目了然同一类事物所共有的特征或特性。此外,归类也可用于呈现事物间的差异。在研究论文中,不少作者常以归类的方式向读者介绍新议题。
一般归类句型

例句:

  1. It has become commonplace to distinguish ‘passive’ from ‘active’ forms of X.
  2. Bone is generally classified into two types: X bone, also known as …, and Y bone or …
  3. Systems theory distinguishes two different types of X, i.e. social and semantic Xs (Al-Masry 2013).
  4. There are two main types of memory: declarative and non-declarative memory.
  5. Declarative memory can be broken down into X and Y.
  6. Aristotle’s systematic treatises may be grouped in several divisions: logic, psychological works, physical …
  7. The works of Aristotle fall under three headings: (1) dialogues and …; (2) collections of facts and …; and (3) systematic works.
  8. There are two basic approaches currently being adopted in research into X. One is the Y approach and the other is …
  9. Associative learning can be categorized into classical and operant conditioning.
  10. Classical conditioning was first …
  11. Generally, spectra typing provides two types of information: band intensity pattern and band number.

特定归类句型

例句:

  1. Individuals were classified as belonging to upper or lower categories of …
  2. Smith and Jones (2003) argue that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
  3. For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …
  4. To better understand the mechanisms of X and its therapeutic implications, Smith et al. (2011) classified X into 3 distinct types using …

评述归类系统

介绍列表

  1. This topic can best be treated under three headings: X, Y and Z.
  2. The key aspects of management can be listed as follows: X, Y and Z.
  3. There are three reasons why the English language has become so dominant.
  4. These are: …
  5. There are two types of effect which result when a patient undergoes X. These are …
  6. The disadvantages of the new approach can be discussed under three headings, which are: …
  7. The Three Voices for Mass is divided into six sections. These are: the Kyrie, Gloria, ….
  8. Appetitive stimuli have three separable basic functions. Firstly, they … Secondly, they …
  9. This section has been included for several reasons: it is …; it illustrates …; and it describes …

引用他人列表

  1. Smith and Jones (1991) list X, Y and Z as the major causes of infant mortality.
  2. Smith (2003) lists the main features of X as follows: it is X; it is Y; and it has Z.
  3. Smith (2003) argues that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
  4. Smith (2003) suggests three conditions for its acceptance. Firstly, X should be …

Secondly, it needs to be … Thirdly, …

  1. For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …

 

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如何才能专注于研究工作上,并提升效率?

问题:
请问在学术钻研的期间,如何才能在专注于探求较深奥的学术问题的同时,又兼顾创新研究?
—西安交通大学某助理教授

回答
生活中有许多看似不重要,却急需处理的事情,而这类事情往往占用了您大量的时间和精力。您可曾亲自操作打印机打印海报、或坐在办公室填写繁琐的表格、亦或因需回复成上百封的e-mail而耗费一整天的时间?我会这么问,是因为这些事都曾发生在我身上。
因此,我们必需掌握如何在琐碎的日常工作中,利用空闲的时间来探求深奥的学术问题,并且推成出新,对领域内的研究发展做出贡献。在此,我提供一些曾使我以及我的学生获益良多的小技巧,希望对您的研究有所帮助。

1. 预留时间给需要探讨的深奥问题
如果您不事先安排好,您会发现您总也不会有专心研究的时间。以我个人为例,我每一学期的课程以及相关工作都相当多,为了确保有足够的时间,我每周预留十个小时,从事与研究相关的准备工作。我将这些时间再细分为论文写作、数据整理、以及其他研究相关的事项上。虽然十个小时不算长,但我要求自己一定预留该时间,并在个人行事历上标注下来,若非必要,绝不轻易变动或占用。

当然,十个小时的预留时间也不是绝对的。例如,在学期之初,考虑到新同学可能不熟悉我上课的内容,我会将工作的重心放在教学与备课上,而将每周所预留的时间减少一些。而当课程上了轨道之后,我会预留更多的时间在研究工作上。

2. 确保个人所需的工具、资料已准备在办公桌上
为了最佳地利用预留的研究时间,我建议在专注于研究前,请确保一切所需的工具、资料已呈放于您的办公桌上,包括了纸笔、相关研究论文等。这样一来,您不必耗费时间于寻找趁手的工具或补充欠缺的数据。

同时,也请务必将可能干扰您工作的事物(如手机)收到一旁,以确保您能心无旁骛地投入于您的研究。

3. 找到适合自己的工作方式
每个人都有属于自己的高效率工作时段,找出您的高效率工作时段,并把这段时间留给重要的研究工作。切记,不要让研究工作紧接在课堂之后,因为在经历了数小时的讲课、回答学生提问,以及处理课后杂事后,您可能已经精疲力竭,在这样的情况下从事研究,极可能导致较低的工作效率。

另外,工作的环境很重要。如果办公室很吵杂,不妨试试通过听音乐帮助您集中注意力。或者,您也可以改变工作环境来提升您的注意力,譬如,您可以到办公室、家里、图书馆或咖啡厅等不同地方,比较看看哪个地方有助于您静心思考而不被打扰。

4. 一步一步来
罗马不是一天建成的。您不用一坐下来,就急于突破研究中悬而未决的难题。不妨先将问题细分成小的子问题,再逐一突破。按部就班、循序渐进是做好研究工作的最简单的诀窍。

5. 在阅读中找灵感
拜读他人的研究论文是最简单、最有效的提升创造力的方法,这样不仅能帮助您了解研究领域的新知识,也可以让您锁定那些可能被挑战的假设,从而发展出您的研究方向。您或许可以从不同的研究论文中找到互斥的论点,并设法找出这些论点互斥的原因,从而获得启发。

6. 培养坚忍不拔的精神
探究研究领域中未解的深奥问题,不论是在自我实现或者学术成就上,都可以给学者带来极大的满足感,但这不是一蹴而就的,往往要经历长时间的探索以及可能的挫败。

不要因此感到烦恼、沮丧而放弃了研究,也不要让“这个问题我解决不了”这样的想法打击您的信心。您只要相信这些挫折都只是通往成功的关卡,只要一步一步来,终可以迎刃而解。

7. 从简单的研究做起,并学会犒赏自己
如果您没有坐下来好好探讨深奥问题的习惯,您不妨从简单的问题入手,不断锻炼自己。如果您的习惯是同时做很多事,在院系间忙里忙外后,要马上在座位上枯坐八个小时,显然是件痛苦的事。所以,您可以学着从半小时的简单研究做起,循序渐进。如果顺利达成了半小时的目标,您可以适当地奖励自己,例如在中午时选择自己最喜欢吃的餐点,或是晚上夜深人静时倒杯小酒,阅读自己爱好的书籍。学着适应自己不习惯的事,并在事后犒赏自己,这是克服研究倦怠的好方法。

在什么情况下,科学论文写作该使用直接引述?

提问:
我发现科学类论文的作者并不常使用“直接引述”,而通常将引文按原意加以改写并注明出处。请问直接引述适用于科学类论文吗?
T. H-L,东南大学博士生

回答:
不同于其他类的论文写作,科学类论文写作极少使用直接引述。究其原因,主要是因为直接引述可能会模糊作者欲表达的论点。较无经验的作者可能倾向于使用直接引述,尤其当他不确定所引述论点的含意时。相较而言,对自己的研究主题有深刻认识的作者,较容易洞悉引文的论点,从而在理解的基础上加以提炼、改写为较精简的文字。这样的改写,不仅不会丧失原文的要旨,而且透露出作者对引文的充分理解。

科学论文写作中不恰当的直接引述
1. 在研究计划书、报告、以证据为基础的评论和文献探讨中,引用已公开发表的研究发现。上述类别的科学论文的主要目的是概述或综合评述某一特定领域的研究;因此,直接引述某一特定的研究发现,并不是有效率的概述或整合。

错误的引述方式

Academic motivation has been identified as an important variable when examining first-year student success; however, results of previous research are inconsistent (Allen, 1999; French & Oakes, 2003). While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Grabiel (1995) found that “student motivation and persistence were significantly correlated,” (p. 18) Allen (1999) reported that “student motivation and persistence were positively correlated only for the subset of first-year students of color” (p. 477).

正确的改写

(a) Academic motivation has been identified as an important variable when examining first-year student success; however, results of previous research are inconsistent (Allen, 1999; French & Oakes, 2003). While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Grabiel (1995) found a significant positive correlation between student motivation and persistence, Allen (1999) found that the positive relationship only existed for students of color.

(b) While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Grabiel (1995) found that greater student motivation predicted greater persistence, Allen (1999) replicated this relationship only among students of color.

2. 提供一项理论或概念的定义。虽然直接引述理论或概念的定义并非错误的做法,但科学类论文的作者很少这样做;相较之下,依据原意改写更容易被接受,也透漏出作者对该研究主题具备有一定的知识。

From Brewin’s (2014) recent theory paper discussing different types of memory related to posttraumatic stress disorder:

应该避免:
Sensory memory or iconic memory is defined by Long (1980) as “a persistence effect in the form of a rapidly decaying image or icon following the termination of a brief stimulus” (p. 787).

较好:
The term sensory memory, or iconic memory, generally refers to a short-term memory store that briefly retains sensory traces. According to Long (1980), these traces exist as an image that quickly disappears after some type of brief visual stimulus is presented.

3. 操作性定义和变量的名称不需直接引述。

Bert and Ernie (2014) found that bullying behavior [variable name], operationalized as the frequency of verbal taunts occurring during recess [operational definition], positively predicted future incarceration.

科学论文写作中恰当的直接引述
在少数情况下,当叙述某特定理论或概念的历史发展历程时,可适当使用直接引述:

1. 引述某个跟您的研究直接相关,且具开创性的历史性文章。在某些情况下,如果原文所提出的独特见解难以透过改写或概括的方式表述的话,那么直接引述原文是适当的。

“A focus of interest for those studying emotion and memory has been the level of recall for the circumstances in which individuals learned of shocking events such as the assassination of a prominent public figure. These were termed flashbulb memories (R. Brown & Kulik, 1977), because they possessed ‘a primary, live quality that is almost perceptual. Indeed, [a flashbulb memory] is very like a photograph that indiscriminately preserves the scene in which each of us found himself when the flashbulb was fired’ (p. 74). This account of flashbulb memory followed an existing notion…”

Brewin, C.R. (2014). Episodic memory, perceptual memory, and their interaction: Foundations for a theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 69-97.

2. 引述问卷或度量法中的项目。在实证研究论文里,若需要在研究方法的章节里描述特定的研究工具或度量法时,引述其中的个别选项作为参考范例常常是必要的。请注意,从问卷中引述项目时,不必附上页数。

“The College Self-Efficacy Inventory (CSEI). This inventory measures college students’ confidence in their ability to complete specific college-related tasks. […] Sample items for which students are asked to rate their confidence include ‘Make new friends at college’ and ‘Ask a question in class.’”

Reynolds, A.L. & Weigand, M.J. (2010). The relationships among academic attitudes, psychological attitudes, and the first-semester academic achievement of first-year college students. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47, 173-193.

3. 以历史性或政治性的引文作为文章的开头。有时,引述历史人物或政治人物的话有助于架构出文章的核心论点;相较于科学论文,直接引述历史人物或政治人物的话的情形更常出现在评论性文章或书籍的章节中。

“Sigmund Freud conceived the first model of the ideal therapist stance, likening the therapist to a blank screen. ‘The therapist should be opaque to his patients and, like a mirror, should show them nothing but what is shown to him’ (Freud 1912/1958, p. 118).”

Henretty, J.R. & Levitt, H.M. (2010). The role of therapist self-disclosure in psychotherapy: A qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 63-77.

令人感到混淆的介词,该如何正确地使用呢?

提问:

我常常搞混不同介词的用法。可以请您谈谈一些常见英语介词的正确用法吗?

 

某博士生写email来询问

 

回答:

在英语中,介词的功用是表明某概念、人物或事件发生或所处的时间、地点或空间。常见的英语介词有
at、by、for、from、under、without、with、to、while、during、on等。介词不能单独使用,后面通常接名词、代词、短语或从句等作它的宾语。介词可以和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作主语、状语、表语等成分。要掌握介词的正确用法,必须牢记一些常见的介词词组或介词与名词的固定搭配。

 

下面列举一些常见的介词与名词的固定搭配。

 

for

 

  • A check for (amount of money): She gave me a check for $50.
  • A demand for something: There wasn’t enough demand for the product.
  • A need for something: In the class, a real need for discipline is evident.
  • A reason for doing something: I have a reason for doing that.

 

in

 

  • A rise in something: A rise in prices has occurred.
  • A fall in something: A fall in prices affected the employees.
  • A decrease in something: We have seen decreases in production levels.

 

of

 

  • A cause of something: She is the cause of all his problems.
  • A photograph or a picture of something or someone: He took a picture of the girl.

 

to

 

  • The damage to something: I did a lot of damage to my car.
  • An invitation to an activity: We were invited to their wedding.
  • A reaction to something: Her reaction to his behavior was funny.
  • A solution to a problem: He provided the solution to our issue.
  • An attitude to something: Your attitude to your problems is lousy.

 

with

 

  • A relationship with someone or something: The relationship with my dog is fun.
  • A connection with someone or something: His connection with the city is limited.
  • A contact with someone or something: Have you had contact with Sarah?

 

between

 

  • A connection between two things: There is no connection between the two ideas.
  • A relationship between two things: The relationship between the two is strong.
  • A contact between two things: There is little contact between the two parents.
  • A difference between two things: There is no difference between those two colors.

使用适当的介词

每个介词都有其特定用法,了解这些特定用法有助于读者更好地理解句子、段落内容。

 

IN

用于空间

  • In a garden
  • In a room

用于水体、水域

  • In the sea
  • In a river

用于队列

  • In a row
  • In a queue

用于静态(非动作性)动词及城市、国家、州等

  • Stay in Hong Kong
  • Work in California

用于月、年、一段时间

  • In April
  • In 2014

用于未来的一段时间

  • In a few weeks
  • In a few hours

 

AT     

用于地点

  • At the bus-stop
  • At the door

用于方位

  • At the top
  • At the bottom

用于人群

  • At the back of the class
  • At the front of class

用于静态(非动作)动词及地点

  • At the cinema
  • At work

用于时间

  • At 10:30
  • At two pm

 

ON

用于表面

  • On the table
  • On the desk

用于小岛

  • On Maui
  • On Green Island

用于方向

  • On the left
  • One the right

用于星期

  • On Monday
  • On Tuesday

用于特定的日期

  • On Halloween
  • On October 29th

TO

用于go、come、drive等动词

  • Go to work
  • Drive to Las Vegas

FOR

用于一段时间

  • For three weeks
  • For many months

WHILE

与动词形态一起使用

  • While I was watching TV
  • While I lived in New York

DURING

用于表达某事件发生的时间区间

  • During class
  • During my vacation

 

 

注意事项

  1. 房间的角落为“in the corner of a room”,街道的角落为“at the corner of a street”。
  2. 建筑物的前方以“in the front of buildings”表达,后方以“at the back of buildings”表达。
  3. 一张纸的正面以“on the front of a piece of paper”表达,背面以“on the back of a piece of paper”表达。

 

介词词组参考

 

AT BY FOR FROM UNDER WITHOUT
At first By accident For now From now on Under age Without fail
At least By far For instance From then on Under control Without notice
At most By all means For example From bad to worse Under the impression Without exception
At times By heart For sale From my point of view Under guarantee Without someone’s consent
At any rate By chance For a while From what I understand Under the influence of Without success
At last By and by For the moment From personal experience Under obligation Without warning
At the latest By the way For ages Under suspicion
At once By the time For a change Under his thumb
At short notice By no means For better or worse Under discussion
At an advantage By name Under consideration
At a disadvantage By sight
At risk By now
At a profit By then
At a loss

 

以上电子报内容改编自美国中北大学写作中心(North Central University Writing Center)的“修改草稿风格”(Revising the Draft for Style)一节。

令人感到混淆的介词,该如何正确地使用呢?

提问:

我常常搞混不同介词的用法。可以请您谈谈一些常见英语介词的正确用法吗?

 

某博士生写email来询问

 

回答:

在英语中,介词的功用是表明某概念、人物或事件发生或所处的时间、地点或空间。常见的英语介词有
at、by、for、from、under、without、with、to、while、during、on等。介词不能单独使用,后面通常接名词、代词、短语或从句等作它的宾语。介词可以和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作主语、状语、表语等成分。要掌握介词的正确用法,必须牢记一些常见的介词词组或介词与名词的固定搭配。

 

下面列举一些常见的介词与名词的固定搭配。

 

for

 

  • A check for (amount of money): She gave me a check for $50.
  • A demand for something: There wasn’t enough demand for the product.
  • A need for something: In the class, a real need for discipline is evident.
  • A reason for doing something: I have a reason for doing that.

 

in

 

  • A rise in something: A rise in prices has occurred.
  • A fall in something: A fall in prices affected the employees.
  • A decrease in something: We have seen decreases in production levels.

 

of

 

  • A cause of something: She is the cause of all his problems.
  • A photograph or a picture of something or someone: He took a picture of the girl.

 

to

 

  • The damage to something: I did a lot of damage to my car.
  • An invitation to an activity: We were invited to their wedding.
  • A reaction to something: Her reaction to his behavior was funny.
  • A solution to a problem: He provided the solution to our issue.
  • An attitude to something: Your attitude to your problems is lousy.

 

with

 

  • A relationship with someone or something: The relationship with my dog is fun.
  • A connection with someone or something: His connection with the city is limited.
  • A contact with someone or something: Have you had contact with Sarah?

 

between

 

  • A connection between two things: There is no connection between the two ideas.
  • A relationship between two things: The relationship between the two is strong.
  • A contact between two things: There is little contact between the two parents.
  • A difference between two things: There is no difference between those two colors.

使用适当的介词

每个介词都有其特定用法,了解这些特定用法有助于读者更好地理解句子、段落内容。

 

IN

用于空间

  • In a garden
  • In a room

用于水体、水域

  • In the sea
  • In a river

用于队列

  • In a row
  • In a queue

用于静态(非动作性)动词及城市、国家、州等

  • Stay in Hong Kong
  • Work in California

用于月、年、一段时间

  • In April
  • In 2014

用于未来的一段时间

  • In a few weeks
  • In a few hours

 

AT     

用于地点

  • At the bus-stop
  • At the door

用于方位

  • At the top
  • At the bottom

用于人群

  • At the back of the class
  • At the front of class

用于静态(非动作)动词及地点

  • At the cinema
  • At work

用于时间

  • At 10:30
  • At two pm

 

ON

用于表面

  • On the table
  • On the desk

用于小岛

  • On Maui
  • On Green Island

用于方向

  • On the left
  • One the right

用于星期

  • On Monday
  • On Tuesday

用于特定的日期

  • On Halloween
  • On October 29th

TO

用于go、come、drive等动词

  • Go to work
  • Drive to Las Vegas

FOR

用于一段时间

  • For three weeks
  • For many months

WHILE

与动词形态一起使用

  • While I was watching TV
  • While I lived in New York

DURING

用于表达某事件发生的时间区间

  • During class
  • During my vacation

 

 

注意事项

  1. 房间的角落为“in the corner of a room”,街道的角落为“at the corner of a street”。
  2. 建筑物的前方以“in the front of buildings”表达,后方以“at the back of buildings”表达。
  3. 一张纸的正面以“on the front of a piece of paper”表达,背面以“on the back of a piece of paper”表达。

 

介词词组参考

 

AT BY FOR FROM UNDER WITHOUT
At first By accident For now From now on Under age Without fail
At least By far For instance From then on Under control Without notice
At most By all means For example From bad to worse Under the impression Without exception
At times By heart For sale From my point of view Under guarantee Without someone’s consent
At any rate By chance For a while From what I understand Under the influence of Without success
At last By and by For the moment From personal experience Under obligation Without warning
At the latest By the way For ages Under suspicion
At once By the time For a change Under his thumb
At short notice By no means For better or worse Under discussion
At an advantage By name Under consideration
At a disadvantage By sight
At risk By now
At a profit By then
At a loss

 

以上电子报内容改编自美国中北大学写作中心(North Central University Writing Center)的“修改草稿风格”(Revising the Draft for Style)一节。

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