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如何在英文学术论文中使用从句,加强表达的逻辑性?(第一部分)

2016 / 9 / 30

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什么是从句subordination

掌握从句的用法,不仅有助于您写出复杂的句子,使段落句型具多样性,而且可使您避免写出零散的、片段的短句。使用从句可以在概念上,制造不对等的强调,即用主句强调主要概念,而将次要概念放入从句中。从句通常由连接词或关联词来引导。

从句连接词Subordinating Conjunctions

  • 让步:although, even though, while(虽然)
  • 程度:inasmuch as, insofar as, to the extent that(在……范围内)
  • 因果:because, since, as(因为)
  • 时间:when(当……的时候), whenever(无论何时), while(当……时), once(一旦), before(在……之前), after(在……之后), since(自从), until(直到), as long as(长达), as soon as(一……就)
  • 条件:if(若), when(当……的时候), provided that(假若), in case(假使), assuming that(假定), as long as(只要)
  • 地方:where(在……哪里), wherever(无论何处)
  • 否定条件:unless(除非)
  • 选择条件:whether or not(是……或不是)

 

以上连接词可以用于引导从属于主句的从句;在使用了这些连接词的句型中,主句强调主要概念,次要概念则被置于从句中。当作者想在一个句子中表达两个概念时,哪一个概念充当主语/从句成分,取决于作者想要表达的内容,以及从句连接词的使用。使用不同的连接词会改变句子的意思,请注意以下例句中句子意思的转变:

Ø    As I continued to revise my paper, my points became clearer.

Ø    Although my points became clearer, I continued to revise my paper.

 

在第一句里,“作者论文要点的清晰度”是强调的重点,第二句强调的则是“作者继续修改论文”。若想将句子重点摆在“修改论文”,则需将“论文要点清晰度”设为从句,反之则把“继续修改论文”设为从句。从句虽有主语、谓语部分,但不能单独成句,例如,Although my points became clearer 便不是一个完整句,不能独立存在。另外,从句和主句间应以逗号来分隔。

 

连接词

从句常被用来表达次要概念,且以连接词来引导。

 

after as long as if since though where who
although because in order to so unless whereas whom
as before provided that so that until which whose
as if even though rather than that when while

 

以下是几个连接词使用的例子:

Ø    Even though I am scared of sailing, I am taking a boat to the Penghu Islands.

Ø    Since I am graduating next month, I need to start looking for a job.

Ø    Whereas my sister’s favorite subject is Chemistry, I prefer English.

Ø    Xiao’s essay had many grammatical errors because he did not proofread it.

 

请注意,当将because引导的从句置于句首时,从句与主句应以逗号分隔,但若because从句紧接于主句之后时,则because前不应加逗号。

例如:

Ø    Because I did not study, I failed the test.

Ø    I failed the test because I did not study.

 

现在请检查您的论文。您能指出哪些句子包含从句吗?这些句子的句首是由从句连接词引导吗?请针对一个段落进行适量的修改,试着用连接词连接从句与主句,但避免将所有句子改成主从结构。另外,为避免句型单调而使读者觉得乏味,请尝试将从句放置于句子的不同位置(如句首、句尾),以丰富句子的结构。

 

透过主句从句结构,突出句子的重心

如果一个句子包含两个不同概念,在比较过后可将较不重要的概念转为从句成分。一个具备主要和次要概念的句子有助于突出论文的重点、阐释观点背后的逻辑推理过程。次要概念充当从句成分,常能加强句子间和段落间的衔接、过渡的流畅程度。

假设您要合并以下两个概念:

Fewer and fewer fish are left in the ocean surrounding Japan. An increasing number of fishermen fish during the bleak winter months.

 

您可通过以下方式,来强调“渔夫越来越多”的主要概念:

Increasing numbers of fishermen fish during the bleak winter months, so fewer and fewer fish are left in the ocean surrounding Japan.

 

您也可以在合并句子时,将“鱼越来越少”的事实作为主要概念:

Fewer and fewer fish are left in the ocean surrounding Japan because an increasing number of fishermen fish during the bleak winter months.

 

在这两个例子中,主要概念都可独立作为一个完整句,而从句以连接词so和because引导,暗示了其引导的信息较不重要。

 

请接着第二部分

如何“剪贴”您的论文?撰写论文时的编辑技巧
在论文中使用词组进行比较和对比,提升表达的清晰度