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如何在英文学术论文中使用从句,加强表达的逻辑性?(第二部分)

2016 / 10 / 7

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请查看第一部分

如何使用主从结构句型和并列结构句型
Using Subordination and Coordination

 

一个句子中子句间的主从结构(以特定方式将不同概念,依照其重要程度在句子中进行呈现)和并列结构(将两个以上同等重要的概念,以特定方式表述于句子中),有助于读者一眼明了句子中单词、词组、子句间的逻辑关系和强调程度。

主从结构 Subordination
使用主从结构,可以強調不同概念在句子中不对等的重要性。主从结构可以出现在单一句子中,也被用来合并两个或两个以上的短句。在使用主从结构句型时,请记得将主要概念呈现于独立子句中(主句),而以从句表述较次要的概念。请用从句连接词(例如:after, because, by the time, even though, if, just in case, now that, once, only if, since, though, unless, until, when, whether, while)或关系代词(依先行词改变单复数的代名词,例如:that, what, whatever, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose)来引导从句。从句连接词和关系代词暗示读者,其引导的内容较为次要。以下例句即以关系代词表示主从结构:

  • I will come to your dorm or meet you at the library, whichever works best for you.

这个例句的核心概念是“我可能会去你宿舍或在图书馆跟你碰面”, 充当主句成分。至于“你要选择哪个方式碰面”,则是次要信息,以关系代名词 whichever 与主句隔开。

在下面的例子中,两个短句以从句连接词because连接:

  • 短句一: The number of students who live at home and take online college classes has risen in the past ten years.
  • 短句二:The rise has been due to increased marketing of university online programs.
  • 主从结构的合并句(版本一):The number of students living at home and taking online college classes has risen in the past ten years because of increased marketing of university online programs.
  • 主从结构的合并句(版本二):Because of increased marketing of university online programs, the number of students living at home and taking online courses has risen in the past ten years.

 

并列结构 Coordination
并列结构句型能够把两个或两个以上同等重要的概念(主语、谓语或宾语)连接起来,以表示它们之间的对等关系。

范例
主语:Both tofu and seaweed are great in soap.

谓语:We neither talked nor laughed during the next two hours.

宾语:Machine embroidery combines the beauty of high-quality stitching and theexpediency of modern technology.
例句中,下划线处的单词或短语以并列连词连接,暗示了这几组单词或短语在句中具有同等的重要性。并列连词可分为单词并列连词和关联并列连词。单词并列连词为一个单词,如and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet关联并列连词则由两个或两个以上的单词组成,如both…and, either…or, just as…so, neither…nor, not…but, not only…but also, whether…or。

控制句子重点
我们常在不经意间使用了主从或并列结构句型,例如描述某事的发生是因为另一件事所造成,如Dale broke his leg while riding his motorcycle 或He broke his leg when he rode his motorcycle into a tree。这时候,使用两个单独的句子或一个主从结构的句子,来传递相同的信息:

以两个句子呈现:Dale broke his leg while riding his motorcycle this weekend. His leg broke when the motorcycle hit a tree.
用一个主从结构句呈现:This weekend, Dale broke his leg when his motorcycle hit a tree. 句中,“Dale跌断腿”是主旨,“这件事在摩托车撞到树时发生”则是次要的信息。
又例如当我们在讨论假期要做的两件事时,常会很自然地使用并列结构。同上例相似,这两件事可以用两个句子分别表述,或以一个并列结构句型来表示两件事同等重要。
以两个句子呈现:I’m planning to see the White House while I’m in the United States. I’m also going to go to Florida.
以一个并列结构句型呈现:While I’m in the United States, I am planning to see the White House and go to Florida.

主从结构错误 Subordination Errors
请避免以下两种常见的主从结构错误:一、将主要信息置于从句中,二、过多的次要信息出现在同一句子中。
将主要信息放在从句中的错误示范:

  • Suzhou , a charming town featuring great art galleries, restaurants, cafés, and shops, is located in a district of Jiangsu .

在这个句子中,核心内容被嵌于从句中,这样没有凸显出苏州的特色,而是强调了苏州位于江苏这一次要信息,显得本末倒置。以下是修改后的例句:

  • Suzhou, located in a district of Jiangsu, is a charming neighborhood featuring great art galleries, restaurants, cafés, and shops.

若一个句子有太多次要信息,这个句子会变得晦涩难懂。
错误示范:

  • University professors, who make decisions about which textbook chapters to ignore and which to extend, need to consider more than their individual opinions so that they do not cancel great textbooks they don’t recognize as good when they see them, while balancing the need to maintain a course that appeals to a broad class, considering that new textbooks don’t yet have a broad following.

修改后:

  • University professors need to consider more than their individual opinions when they decide which textbook chapters to ignore and which to extend. Many years ago, some of these very professors decided that currently popular textbooks should be canceled, clearly demonstrating they do not always know which books would become great. University professors should also balance the need to maintain a course that appeals to a broad class with an appreciation for new textbooks that don’t yet have a broad following.

主从结构重点整理 Key points on Subordination
主从结构和并列结构是两个重要的句型结构,能够将多个信息连接起来表示信息间的相互关系,是有主次之分或同等重要。
主从结构句型通常以从句连接词或关系代词引导出重要性低于主旨的信息。错误使用范例包括:将主旨放在从句、一个句子放入太多次要信息。并列结构句型则是以单词并列连词和关联并列连词,将两个或两个以上的同等重要的概念连接起来。

令人感到混淆的介词,该如何正确地使用呢?
如何维持字词的一致性与意义的完整性?