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在学术论文中,哪些单词常被误用?

2017 / 3 / 9

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在润色论文时,我们发现一些单词常常被误用。针对这些单词,我们将在以下试着说明其正确的用法:

 

Anticipate vs Expect(预期 vs 期望)

Anticipate的意思是预见某事即将发生,并于事前做好充分准备。所以,anticipate(预期)在意义上不同于estimate(估计)、expect(期望)、presume(推测)或predict(预言),不能相互替换使用。例如,expecting business to pick up和anticipating business will pick up的意思不同。后者的anticipate意味着,店家为了生意好起来,做了应对的准备,像是增加存货,或者增添员工;而前者的expect则表示店家只是期盼生意好转,但没有做任何相应的动作。

范例:

We anticipate a cold winter so we are buying extra coats.

We expect he will arrive at 4:00 p.m.

 

Dilemma vs Problem(困境 vs 问题)

Dilemma的前缀di-表示“二的、双的”的意思,同diphthong(双元音)和diarchy(双头政治)。所以,Dilemma意涵两难的抉择,或进退两难的处境。

范例:

Choosing between the conventional approach and Chen’s approach presented us with a dilemma. (Two options)

The problem with the conventional approach is…. (We are not told how many options we have.)

 

Plethora vs Abundance(过多 vs 丰富)

Plethora源自希腊文full(充满),用来描述某物的数量超过所需或可处理范围的状况,即过剩的意思,不同于abundance(丰富、充足)。

范例:

He was overwhelmed by the plethora of forms he had to fill out. (Too much – often negative)

The famer had an abundant harvest of carrots. (More than expected – positive)

 

Refute vs Reject(驳斥 vs 驳回)

Refute的意思是驳斥、反驳,但不是单纯的否定或驳回某事,而是以证据证明某事无效或错误。

范例:

The reviewer provided evidence that refuted the author’s claims. (Proved it wrong)

The editor rejected the paper. (Said no)

 

Stalemate vs Deadlock(和局 vs 僵局)

对弈发生stalemate(和局)时,棋局便会结束。因此,stalemate只能用来比喻某件事将结束的情况,例如:It ended in a stalemate(这件事以和局收场)。这个字跟impasse(死路)、bottleneck(瓶颈)或deadlock(僵局)不同,因为这些字都是指暂时且或可解决的阻碍,并非永久结束的状态。

范例:

The discussion of the proposal ended in a stalemate and the participants went home without a resolution. (The discussion of the proposal was stopped forever.)

The discussion of the proposal reached a deadlock before a compromise was found. (The discussion of the proposal stalled and then got started again and agreement was finally reached.)

 

Travesty vs Tragedy(扭曲 vs 悲剧)

Travesty很容易被人同tragedy搞混,被误用来形容不好的事物。Travesty最初的意思是指装扮或伪装某人,使之成为受嘲笑的对象或者用以嘲讽他人。后来,travesty逐渐延伸为以古怪荒诞的方式扭曲事物。例如,travesty of justice就是指真实的正义受到扭曲而变得荒谬颠倒,但并不等同于悲剧。

范例:

The judge’s decision is a travesty. (Ridiculous and terrible)

The car accident was a tragedy. (Terrible and causing grief)

 

Invariably vs Often(不变地 vs 时常)

Invariably形容某事“一直”发生,而非只是“经常”发生。因此,形容某人invariably good at their job,意思就是他们在工作的每一刻都表现良好。

范例:

The sun invariably rises each morning. (Without exceptions)

He often takes a walk before breakfast. (Usually, but not always)

 

Collude vs Collaborate(共谋 vs 合作)

Collude只能用在整体上具负面含意的情况,它的意思是plot(密谋)或conspire(同谋),而不是collaborate(合作)。

范例:

The government officials colluded with the company president to reduce the company’s taxes. (They plotted – negative and often illegal)

The scholars collaborated on their research. (They shared ideas – usually positive)

 

Ultimately vs Consequently(最终 vs 因此)

Ultimately和consequently并非同义字。Ultimate是指顺序上的最后一项。因此,如果某事ultimately happens,即表示这件事在过了很长一段时间或时机成熟时发生了。若某事consequently happens,它是指涉因另一件事所造成的结果。

范例:

Ultimately, his proposal was accepted. (In the end)

He was fired from his job. Consequently, he posted his resume online. (As a result)

 

Peruse vs Glance(细读 vs 扫视)

Peruse的意思是仔细阅读,与study(研读)和pore(熟读)同义,而不同于skim(浏览)或glance over(略读)。举例来说,peruse the magazines when you’re in a doctor’s waiting room是不恰当的,我们会建议使用glance over或skim来取代peruse。

范例:

He perused the research article carefully.

He glanced at the clock.

 

Disinterested vs Uninterested(公正无私 vs 漠不关心)

若用disinterested来形容某人,表示他是一个局外人,因此较可能保持客观公正的态度来看待发生的事情。如果用uninterested来形容某人,表示他对发生的事情没有兴趣,而表现出漠不关心的样子。

范例:

The judge was unbiased and disinterested in the outcome of the case.

The students were uninterested in finishing their homework.

 

Enormity vs Enormous(穷凶恶极 vs 巨大的)

Enormity容易与enormous混淆,因此常常被误当作sizableness(庞大)或immensity(广大)的同义字。Enormity指坏事的可怕,只能用在负面的情况。因此,我们可以说the enormity of a person’s crime(某人罪大恶极),但不可以说the enormity of the crowd at a music festival(音乐节的人潮众多)。

范例:

He realized enormity of the situation. (He realized how terrible the situation was)

He farmer grew an enormous pumpkin. (It was very big)

 

Effectively vs Basically(有效 vs 基本上)

Effectively意思是to good effect(达到良效),而不是in effect(实际上),因此使用上不应与basically(基本上)混用。所以,当有人说Jaws 2 effectively repeated the first film,他的意思是《白鲨2》的制作成功、效果良好,暗示这是一部好电影。

范例:

He effectively managed his department. (He managed well)

Basically, I agree with you. (I agree with the majority of what you say except for a few details)

 

Venerable vs Old令人敬佩的 vs 年老的)

Venerable不只是用来形容old(年老、老旧的)或ancient(古老的),同时表示由岁月带来的值得珍重或尊重的。

范例:

The venerable old building stood at the end of the street. (Old, respected and with a rich history)

The old man crossed the street. (He’s just old)

 

Fortuitous vs Fortunate(偶然的 vs 幸运的)

Fortuitous和fortunate并不是同义字,前者是指偶然的发生,而后者是指幸运的发生。所以,bumping into someone fortuitously(偶然地遇到某人)可能是好事,也可能是坏事;但是bumping into them fortunately(幸运地遇到某人)指的一定是好事。

范例:

A fortuitous event brought them together. (By chance)

Fortunately, they brought enough water for the trip. (Lucky)

 

Nonplussed vs Unperturbed(不知所措 vs 镇定自若)

Nonplussed意指困惑的,或者受惊吓而不知该如何反应。由于nonplussed前缀是non-,因此常被误以为是unperturbed(镇定自若)或unimpressed(不为所动)的同义字,但实际上nonplussed与这两个字的意思正好相反。

范例:

The surprising event left him nonplussed. (Shocked and not knowing what to do)

The surprising event left him unperturbed. (Undisturbed and unsurprised)

Because of 与 Due to有什么不同?
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