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如何在论文中使用 “归类”和“列表”句型?

2017 / 10 / 16

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用于“归类”及“列表”的句型

研究论文中常会用到具归类功能以及列表功能的句型。归类句型常用在论文中较前面的章节。列表句型则用于将众多的信息以某种方式进行罗列或归类,以便于之后的系统性处理或呈现。在归类时,我们依照事物的共同性来分类与命名。这么一来,读者可一目了然同一类事物所共有的特征或特性。此外,归类也可用于呈现事物间的差异。在研究论文中,不少作者常以归类的方式向读者介绍新议题。
一般归类句型

例句:

  1. It has become commonplace to distinguish ‘passive’ from ‘active’ forms of X.
  2. Bone is generally classified into two types: X bone, also known as …, and Y bone or …
  3. Systems theory distinguishes two different types of X, i.e. social and semantic Xs (Al-Masry 2013).
  4. There are two main types of memory: declarative and non-declarative memory.
  5. Declarative memory can be broken down into X and Y.
  6. Aristotle’s systematic treatises may be grouped in several divisions: logic, psychological works, physical …
  7. The works of Aristotle fall under three headings: (1) dialogues and …; (2) collections of facts and …; and (3) systematic works.
  8. There are two basic approaches currently being adopted in research into X. One is the Y approach and the other is …
  9. Associative learning can be categorized into classical and operant conditioning.
  10. Classical conditioning was first …
  11. Generally, spectra typing provides two types of information: band intensity pattern and band number.

特定归类句型

例句:

  1. Individuals were classified as belonging to upper or lower categories of …
  2. Smith and Jones (2003) argue that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
  3. For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …
  4. To better understand the mechanisms of X and its therapeutic implications, Smith et al. (2011) classified X into 3 distinct types using …

评述归类系统

介绍列表

  1. This topic can best be treated under three headings: X, Y and Z.
  2. The key aspects of management can be listed as follows: X, Y and Z.
  3. There are three reasons why the English language has become so dominant.
  4. These are: …
  5. There are two types of effect which result when a patient undergoes X. These are …
  6. The disadvantages of the new approach can be discussed under three headings, which are: …
  7. The Three Voices for Mass is divided into six sections. These are: the Kyrie, Gloria, ….
  8. Appetitive stimuli have three separable basic functions. Firstly, they … Secondly, they …
  9. This section has been included for several reasons: it is …; it illustrates …; and it describes …

引用他人列表

  1. Smith and Jones (1991) list X, Y and Z as the major causes of infant mortality.
  2. Smith (2003) lists the main features of X as follows: it is X; it is Y; and it has Z.
  3. Smith (2003) argues that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
  4. Smith (2003) suggests three conditions for its acceptance. Firstly, X should be …

Secondly, it needs to be … Thirdly, …

  1. For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …

 

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哪些句型适用于定义关键专有名词?
Critique、Evaluate、Criticize、Justify、Elaborate 及相关单字的差异性为何?