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避免使用模糊、冗长的句型

2021 / 5 / 14

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我想谈谈最近论文修改中遇见的几个问题。

 

在枚举时,中文习惯于在列举未尽时使用“等等”的表达法,但在英文写作时,请尽量不要用etc.、and so forth、and so on。比较好的做法是使用所谓的上位词(superordinate term)作概括,如下例句中的natural causes,再于其后加上including、such as。

 

错误:Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced
by volcanism, solar activity, etc.

 

正确:Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced
by natural causes, such as volcanism and solar activity.

 

使用e.g.时须注意标点符号的正确性

 

请注意在学术写作中,拉丁文e.g.的使用主要是放在括号内,表示例如,因此不宜用它替代for example或for instance。美式英语中e.g.有两个点号,而英式英语则不须加点,只写作eg。另外,放在句中时,请在它的左右两边都加上逗号,将它和句子的其他部分隔开。

 

错误:Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced, e.g.,
by volcanism or solar activity.

 

正确:Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced
by natural causes, e.g., volcanism or solar activity.

 

 

正确:Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced
by natural causes (e.g., volcanism and solar activity).

 

四种正式写作中的举例方法

 

这四种举例表达方法均是提出一个概括上位词(例句中以粗体标示)。其中,采用including的做法另外还需要提出一个量词(quantifier)。

 

  • [量词] + [上位词] + including + [例子]

 

Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced by a variety of natural causes, including volcanism and solar activity.

 

常见量词:

 

A variety of
Various
A number of
Numerous
Many
Much
An array of Several

 

2) [上位词] + such as + [例子]

 

Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced by natural causes, such as volcanism and solar activity.

 

3) [上位词] + include(s) + [例子]

 

Scientists theorize that the factors leading to global temperature may include volcanism and solar activity.

 

4) [例子] + and other + [上位词]

 

Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced by volcanism, solar activity, and other natural causes.

 

注意:避免用like来举例。在意义上,like等同于similar to,而非for example。

 

错误:Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced by natural causes, like volcanism and solar activity.

 

正确:Scientists theorize that global temperature change may be induced by natural causes, such as volcanism and solar activity.

 

小心别将i.e.e.g.搞混

 

许多人常将i.e.与e.g.混淆。实际上,e.g.(拉丁文exempli gratia的简写)是for example的意思,而i.e.(拉丁文id est的简写)则是that is to say的意思,所以后面接的是举例说明,而非枚举。

 

值得一提的是,书写时,i.e.与e.g.前后都要加上逗号,将它和句子的其他部分隔开。而且,i.e.与e.g.最好是用在括号里面。

 

错误:用一个逗号

 

Punctuation is the act and result of punctuating, i.e. using punctuation marks.

 

Punctuation is the act and result of using punctuation marks, e.g. commas, semicolons, and apostrophes.

 

正确:用两个逗号

 

Punctuation is the act and result of punctuating, i.e., using punctuation marks.

Punctuation is the act and result of punctuating (i.e., using punctuation marks).

 

Punctuation is the act and result of using punctuation marks, e.g., commas, semicolons, and apostrophes.

Punctuation is the act and result of using punctuation marks (e.g., commas, semicolons, and apostrophes).

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